CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHY OF CENOMANIAN-TURONIAN CARBONATES OF THE SARVAK FORMATION, SOUTHERN IRAN
E. Hajikazemi1*, I. S. Al-Aasm2 4 and M. Coniglio3
1Department of Geology, Iranian Offshore Oil Company, Tehran, Iran, PO Box 5591.
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
2Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 Canada.
3Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada.
4The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Stable-isotope and trace-element analyses from six surface and subsurface stratigraphic sections of the mid-Cretaceous Sarvak Formation in southern and offshore Iran confirm the presence of the regional-scale Turonian unconformity and of more local Cenomanian-Turonian unconformities. The geochemical results indicate the presence of previously unrecognized and/or undifferentiated subaerial exposure surfaces. Sarvak Formation carbonates at or near palaeoexposure surfaces show varying degrees of diagenetic modification, and more extensive alteration is associated with longer periods of exposure. The subaerial exposure and associated diagenetic processes greatly influenced reservoir quality and amplified karstification and evolution of porosity in the Upper Sarvak Formation.
The palaeo-exposure surfaces are identified by their negative δ13C values (as low as -6.4‰) and negative δ18O values (as low as -9.4‰), together with low Sr concentrations and relatively high 87Sr/86Sr ratios. These geochemical characteristics are interpreted to be the result of the interaction of the Sarvak Formation carbonates with meteoric waters charged with atmospheric CO2. The meteoric waters also caused karstification and soil formation which in some places extends a few metres below the exposure surfaces. Depleted carbon values were not recorded in areas where palaeosols are not well developed or where the uppermost layers of the Sarvak Formation have been removed by erosion.