A REVIEW OF GEOLOGICAL DATA THAT CONFLICTS WITH THE PARADIGM OF CATAGENIC GENERATION AND MIGRATION OF OIL
H. Hugh Wilson*
The majority of petroleum geologists today agree that the complex problems that surround the origin, generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons can be resolved by accepting the geochemical conclusion that the process originates by catagenic generation in deeply-buried organically-rich source rocks. These limited source rock intervals are believed to expel hydrocarbons when they reach organic maturity in oil kitchens. The expelled oil and gas then follow migration pathways to traps at shallower levels. However, there are major geological obstacles that cast doubt upon this interpretation.
The restriction of the source rock to a few organically rich levels in a basin forces the conclusion that the basin plumbing system is leaky and allows secondary horizontal and vertical migration through great thicknesses of consolidated sedimentary rocks in which there are numerous permeability barriers that are known to effectively prevent hydrocarbon escape from traps. The sourcing of lenticular traps points to the enclosing impermeable envelope as the logical origin of the trapped hydrocarbons.
The lynch-pin of the catagenic theory of hydrocarbon origin is the expulsion mechanism from deeply-buried consolidated source rock under high confining pressures. This mechanism is not understood and is termed an “enigma”. Assuming that expulsion does occur, the pathways taken by the hydrocarbons to waiting traps can be ascertained by computer modelling of the basin. However, subsurface and field geological support for purported migration pathways has yet to be provided.
Many oilfield studies have shown that oil and gas are preferentially trapped in synchronous highs that were formed during, or very shortly after, the deposition of the charged reservoir. An unresolved problem is how catagenically generated hydrocarbons, expelled during a long-drawn-out maturation period, can have filled synchronous highs but have avoided later traps along the assumed migration pathways.
From many oilfield studies, it has also been shown that the presence of hydrocarbons inhibits diagenesis and compaction of the reservoir rock. This “Füchtbauer effect” points to not only the early charging of clastic and carbonate reservoirs, but also the development of permeability barriers below the early-formed accumulations. These barriers would prevent later hydrocarbon additions during the supposed extended period of expulsion from an oil kitchen.
Early-formed traps that have been sealed diagenetically will retain their charge even if the trap is opened by later structural tilting. Diagenetic traps have been discovered in clastic and carbonate provinces but their recognition as viable exploration targets is discouraged by present-day assumptions of late hydrocarbon generation and a leaky basin plumbing system.
Because there are so many geological realities that cast doubt upon the assumptions that devolve from the paradigm of catagenic generation, the alternative concept of early biogenic generation and accumulation of immature oil, with in-reservoir cracking during burial, is again worthy of serious consideration. This concept envisages hydrocarbon generation by bacterial activity in many anoxic environments and the charging of synchronous highs from adjacent sources.
The resolution of the fundamental problem of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation, which is critical to exploration strategies, should be sought in the light of a thorough knowledge of the geologic factors involved, rather than by computer modelling, which may be guided by questionable geochemical assumptions.
JPG Home (opens in this window)