MINERALOGICAL, PORE AND PETROPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEVONIAN JAUF SANDSTONE RESERVOIR, HAWIYAH FIELD, EASTERN SAUDI ARABIA
S. Saner*+, H. M. Hassan*, K. A. Al-Ramadan* and W. M. Abdulghani*
*The Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.
+Corresponding author, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Throughout the subsurface of the Arabian Peninsula, the approximately 460ft thick, Devonian Jauf Formation generally consists of well-compacted, low-porosity sandstones and shales, but it also includes friable and highly porous sandstones which form significant gas and condensate reservoir intervals. The mineralogy and pore properties of these reservoir intervals at the Hawiyah field (part of the giant Ghawar structure) were studied by integrating petrographic data with petrophysical measurements of reservoir sandstone samples.
The reservoir sandstones are mainly composed of quartz arenites containing small amounts of altered potassium feldspar grains, authigenic illite and chlorite. Based on the pore types, which reflect the habits of the intergranular clays, three reservoir sandstone types have been defined: Type A, characterized by macroporosity; Type B, with microporosity; and Type C, with combined laminations of Types A and B. The dominance of pore-lining clay (as in Type A) or pore-filling clay (as in Type B) is the principal factor controlling the petrophysical properties of the samples. Types A and C sandstones contain macro pores, but irreducible water saturation is high (25 to 45%) compared to clean samples elsewhere, because of the presence of micropores associated with clay. In Type B sandstones the irreducible water saturation is commonly greater than 40% because all the pores spaces are in the microporosity range. The irreducible water saturation in Type B sandstones increases rapidly as porosity decreases. When porosity is less than 10%, the corresponding permeability is 0.2 mD, but no economic production can be expected because water saturation is as high as 100%. In the producing intervals, authigenic clays result in low electrical resistivity due to high water saturation; however, water-free gas is produced.
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